$exists, $type, $regex operators: MongoDB

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In today’s video tutorial, lets learn to use $exists, $type and $regex operators.

mongodb-exisits-type-regex

Documents in our collection
test database, names collection.

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> use test
switched to db test
> show collections
names
system.indexes
 
> db.names.find().pretty()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d4604cc1cb0a7bfc3c0"), "name" : "Alia" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d8604cc1cb0a7bfc3c5"), "name" : "Farhan" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9204cc1cb0a7bfc3c6"), "name" : "Gangs" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9904cc1cb0a7bfc3c7"), "name" : "Hum" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5e3704cc1cb0a7bfc3c8"), "name" : 25 }
 
> db.names.insert({"name": "Satish", "age": 27});
WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })
 
 
> db.names.find().pretty()
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d4604cc1cb0a7bfc3c0"), "name" : "Alia" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d8604cc1cb0a7bfc3c5"), "name" : "Farhan" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9204cc1cb0a7bfc3c6"), "name" : "Gangs" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9904cc1cb0a7bfc3c7"), "name" : "Hum" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5e3704cc1cb0a7bfc3c8"), "name" : 25 }
{
        "_id" : ObjectId("53beaa0f6a8a31dc255d4589"),
        "name" : "Satish",
        "age" : 27
}

Observe the documents – it has some names which are in alphabetical order. Last document has an extra field called age. And another odd entry is a document with name as 25.

$exists take 2 values, true or false

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> db.names.find({"age": {$exists: true}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53beaa0f6a8a31dc255d4589"), "name" : "Satish", "age" : 27 }
 
> db.names.find({"age": {$exists: false}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d4604cc1cb0a7bfc3c0"), "name" : "Alia" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d8604cc1cb0a7bfc3c5"), "name" : "Farhan" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9204cc1cb0a7bfc3c6"), "name" : "Gangs" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9904cc1cb0a7bfc3c7"), "name" : "Hum" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5e3704cc1cb0a7bfc3c8"), "name" : 25 }

If $exists is true, it retrieves documents which has the specified field. If $exists is false, then it retrieves all the documents which do not have the specified field.

$exists, $type, $regex operators: MongoDB


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$type take numeric value(BSON specification)

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> db.names.find({"name": {$type: 1}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5e3704cc1cb0a7bfc3c8"), "name" : 25 }
 
> db.names.find({"name": {$type: 2}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d4604cc1cb0a7bfc3c0"), "name" : "Alia" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d8604cc1cb0a7bfc3c5"), "name" : "Farhan" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9204cc1cb0a7bfc3c6"), "name" : "Gangs" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9904cc1cb0a7bfc3c7"), "name" : "Hum" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53beaa0f6a8a31dc255d4589"), "name" : "Satish", "age" : 27 }
Type Number
Double 1
String 2
Object 3
Array 4
Binary data 5
Undefined 6
Object id 7
Boolean 8
Date 9
Null 10
Regular Expression 11
JavaScript 13
Symbol 14
JavaScript (with scope) 15
32-bit integer 16
Timestamp 17
64-bit integer 18
Min key 255
Max key 127

$regex (similar to perl regular expression)

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> db.names.find({"name": {$regex: "e"}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
 
> db.names.find({"name": {$regex: "^E"}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }
 
> db.names.find({"name": {$regex: "h$"}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53beaa0f6a8a31dc255d4589"), "name" : "Satish", "age" : 27 }
 
> db.names.find({"name": {$regex: "^[A-Z]"}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d4604cc1cb0a7bfc3c0"), "name" : "Alia" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d8604cc1cb0a7bfc3c5"), "name" : "Farhan" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9204cc1cb0a7bfc3c6"), "name" : "Gangs" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d9904cc1cb0a7bfc3c7"), "name" : "Hum" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53beaa0f6a8a31dc255d4589"), "name" : "Satish", "age" : 27 }
 
> db.names.find({"name": {$regex: "^[A-E]"}});
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d4604cc1cb0a7bfc3c0"), "name" : "Alia" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5204cc1cb0a7bfc3c1"), "name" : "Bebo" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d5904cc1cb0a7bfc3c2"), "name" : "Chameli" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6104cc1cb0a7bfc3c3"), "name" : "Dev D" }
{ "_id" : ObjectId("53be5d6804cc1cb0a7bfc3c4"), "name" : "Emli" }

$regex: “e” retrieves all the documents in which small letter “e” is present.
$regex: “^E” retrieves all the documents which has it’s name beginning letter as “E”.
$regex: “h$” retrieves all the documents which has it’s name ending letter as “h”.
$regex: “^[A-Z]” retrieves all the documents which has it’s name starting with characters “A” to “Z”.
$regex: “^[A-E]” retrieves all the documents which has it’s name starting with characters “A” to “E”.

Note: There is more to regular expression, this video is just an introduction. We’ll cover more about regular expressions in a separate video of it’s own.

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